Prostate cancer is considered as the second leading cause of cancer death among American men over 65 years of age. It is said that prostate cancer are 30-40% higher among Afro-American men. Moreover, the main cause of prostate cancer is unknown; however, hereditary and family history will contribute to an increase risk of developing cancer of the prostate. It can spread locally, by lymphatics or even by way of bloodstream.
In addition to this, most early stage of prostate cancer are symptomatic or no symptoms at all. Once the stage will progress to another stage, and symptoms will occur once there is obstruction of urinary flow. Because of these, when the prostate gland becomes bigger, then it will cause obstruction in the urinary tract which will result to diminution in size, nocturia and hesitancy of voiding. That is why, cancer patient’s complaint of pain upon urination.
Also, once the cancer are metastasizing to distant areas, such as bone metastasis like pain in the lumbosacral areas which then radiate to hips down to the legs. Also, there is hematuria, or in other words, blood in the urine. Another, some patients will experience to have an edema, because venous return is compromise due to obstruction. Additionally, there are perineal and rectal discomfort, as well as anemia, weakness, oliguria, weight loss and nausea.
On the other hand, to evaluate the diagnosis of prostate cancer is through transrectal ultrasonography. Also, digital rectal examination, since prostate gland can be felt, through the wall of the rectum, so it is easy to detect if there are abnormality of the prostate gland. However, there is serologic marker that confirms the diagnosis of prostate cancer, these is prostate specific antigen. It is used to measures the amino acid glycoprotein serum in the blood.
Once the PSA level rises to its normal level then it will be a factor in diagnosing prostate cancer. Once the PSA level measures between .0 and 10 ng/dl or above 10 ng/dl, it is the indicative of prostate cancer. In which the normal level, is less than, 4.0 ng/dl.
On the other hand, the survival rate of prostate cancer patients indicates the percentage of people with a certain type and stages of prostate cancer who survive the cancer for a period of time after the diagnosis has given. These are based on a 5-year survival rate of prostate cancer, statistically. Meaning, it is the percentage of people, who are a live 5 years after the diagnosis, whether there are no symptoms appear, free from disease or having treatment.
However, survival rates of prostate cancer depend on the several factors. These are the stage of prostate cancer, the general health and the patient’s age. Recently, according to the recent data, prostate cancer patients with relative of 5 year survival rate are nearly 100% probability rate. However, in a 10 year survival rate, there is 91% probability. Also there are, 76% probability of 15 year relative survival rate. When it comes to races, in which survival rates depends due to many factors. On the other hand, there are 99.9% of survival rate for white men. On the other hand, there are 97.6% of survival rate among black men or Afro-American race. As you can see the data gathered, survival rates among cancer patients will only depends on the extend of diagnosing the disease, whether or not the disease are progressive and the extent of metastasis.
Moreover, modern methods nowadays for detection and treatment somehow affect the probability of survival rate among prostate cancer patients. Why? Because, once prostate cancer is diagnose earlier and treatment will follow after the diagnosis, then outcome will produce into a good prognosis. It is very important to have an early detection of prostate cancer among patients, so that survival rate is definitely high. If one should have a family history, then early 40’s in their age, they should undergo annual direct rectum examination and PSA testing to detect cancer cells.
Annual checkup also be in need to manage and plan the care of the patients, for the good outcome. However, if there are no familial history, annual check-up and diagnostic test should begin on 50 years old and above in order to properly detect the cancer cells. Bear in mind that prevention is better than cure. So, you need to be very keen in observing your body if there are abnormalities, then seek immediately your physicians advised.
Aside from that, treatments of prostate cancer nowadays are improving for 30 years. The recommended treatment of prostate cancer, once it is confirmed, then, transurethral resection of the prostate or TURP is very helpful. These procedures remove the obstructing tissue in the bladder, thus helping the patients to urinate properly without causing any pain. Also, radical prostatectomy or the removal of the entire prostate gland, prostatic capsule and seminal vesicles also can be very helpful.
Moreover, cryosurgery can be a big help. Cryosurgery of the prostate freezes the tissue of the prostate, thus killing the tumor cells without removing the gland. Isn’t it nice to perform? Indeed, it is. However, there are limitations that depend on the treatment and procedure performs on the cancer cells. Finally, it is better to have an early prevention than choosing to perform surgery.