What is Diabetes?


In the growing population worldwide, the disease also grows together with it. And one of these leading diseases is diabetes that affects the health of more tat 90% of the world’s population nowadays. Insulin is the primary problem of diabetes disorder. Yes, these hormones are selected by the beta cells of the islets of laugherhaus located at the pancreas.

Furthermore, the insulin is very essential in the utilization of glucose for cellular metabolism and also for the proper metabolism of protein and fat. Without the hormone of insulin, plasma glucose concentration will rise and will result to glycosuria. Normally, in the circulating blood, glucose levels should maintain at a normal range of 70-100 mg/dl. If these will not in the normal range then diabetes disorder will result. Let us know deeply the course of this disease.


Primarily, these are 2 classifications of diabetes mellitus. First one is the type 1 OM. This is describe as little or no endogenous insulin and typically requires insulin injection to control the diabetes and later on prevent the complication of ketoacidosis. This disease is commonly seen among patients with the age 30 and above. Secondly, the type 2 OM or the non-insulin depended DM, is a combination of insulin resistance and deficient of insulin hormone.

There are 90% of cases belongs to those type 2 DM group and it is the most common disease acquired by majority of individuals. It is a big adjustment for Diabetic patients once they have this disease because glucose level should be controlled all the time to avoid complications that can exchange their lives.


Perhaps you wonder what the causes of the development of these diseases are. Also, let us know the predisposing factors and precipitating factors that contribute to DM. Medically speaking, the only main cause of DM is the deficiency of insulin hormone that is responsible for converting glucose into energy.

Once insulin is deficient, there are no means that glucose will be converted and once glucose is not converted, it accumulates in the blood resulting to higher sugar levels and later on cause problems damage to the system.

On the other hand, the etiology of developing DM is as follows: the strong hereditary component, obesity, autoimmunity, genetic components, viral and certain histcompatibility (HLA) antigens, these are the precipitating and predisposing factors that leads to the development of DM. Furthermore, once diabetic mellitus runs in the family, well bear in mind that you are at higher risk of acquiring such conditions.

You need to thoroughly examine your blood sugar levels for further assessment and be ready for the consequences that brought about by this disease. However, once the diagnosis is confirmed there are symptoms’ that DM manifests.


The usual presentation of symptoms in DM in type 1 DM is rapid with the manifestations of polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria as well as weight loss. These are the classical symptoms of type 1 DM. On the other hand, the type 2 DM symptoms is otherwise slow, these are weight gain, poor wound healing, fatigue and recurrent infection.

Indeed, you notice that Diabetes patient have poor wound healing, that is why they are very careful in their skin avoiding wounds because high glucose or sugar levels in the blood can affect wound healing, this is because microorganism easily stick to the wound with high sugar levels. Something sweet is the best ground for bacterial proliferation. And if will not be controlled, the wound will progress and later on lead to amputation.

On the other hand, there are methods and tools used to diagnose DM. These are laboratory test that monitors your blood sugar levels. First is Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGIT). These evaluate insulin response to glucose loading.

First thing to do is obtain an FNS before the ingestion of a 50-200 g glucose load, then blood sample are drawn of 4-5 hours sampling. But before these samples are obtained, you need to advise the patient to follow the usual diet and exercise pattern for 3 days before extracting blood sample.

Second is fasting blood sugar test. These test are drawn after you fast at least an 8 hours period, these will evaluate the circulating amounts of glucose in the blood. Another is postprandial test, which is drawn 2 hours after a well-balanced, these evaluate glucose metabolism in the body and there is also the random glucose test. These tests are drawn anytime with non-fasting method.

After the samples of blood glucose are drawn, interpretation follows. A FBS blood sample should have normal range of 126 mg/dl or more, while the random blood sugar is greater than equal to 200 mg/dl and the fasting blood glucose is within 70-100 mg/dl, if the result of these blood sugar test is above or below the normal values then probably there is an abnormality of your body. If higher in the normal range, it only means you are hyperglycaemic while if it is lower then you are hypoglycaemic.

Third, there is glycated haemoglobin. These measures glycemic control over a 60-120 day period, it measures the e=irreversible reaction of glucose to haemoglobin through freely permeable erythrocyte during their 120 days life cycle. The good thing of this test is that it does not have prior preparation compared to the other test. Finally, once the diagnosis is confirmed, the physicians will make a management plan that is good for their condition.


Furthermore, the management of diabetes mellitus are through insulin therapy, diet modification, exercise and oral antidiabetic agents. Insulin therapy involves sub-cutaneous injection of short, intermediate and long-acting insulin to achieve the desired effect. Moreover, the most important thing in the treatment required diet modification. Restrictions of sweets, carbohydrates and saturated fats are necessary in order to control blood glucose and lipid levels. As well as maintaining ideal body weight.

Indeed, weight reduction, apparently, is a primary treatment for type 2 DM. Furthermore, regular exercise is a good way to promote utilization of carbohydrates, enhance the action of insulin, improve the cardiovascular fitness and also assist in weight control. Another treatment for DM patients are the ant-diabetic agents for type 2 DM, these are taken if diet and exercise cannot control the glucose levels.

These medications are Sulfonylureas meglitinide analogues, it has a hypoglycaemic reactions. Another set of drugs are Biguanides and alpha-glycosidase inhibitors, these medications acts to stimulate insulin secretions, reduction of hepatic glucose production, enhancement of peripheral sensitivity to insulin as well as reduced absorption of carbohydrates form the intestines.


If treatment and management plan are not followed accordingly, then complications will develop. It can be an acute or chronic complication. When we say acute complications, these mean that there are certain disorders that will develop like hypoglycaemia, hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome and diabetic ketoacidosis.

Hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome cause severe dehydration, hyperosmolality, hyperglycemias and stupor while DKA often the result of type 1 DM complications, these cause of severe insulin deficiency which results to severe hyperglycemias, dehydration, ketonuria and acidosis.

Hypoglycaemia on the other hand is a result of an imbalance food, insulin or oral anti-diabetic agent and activity. While chronic complications involve micro vascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy.

These complications are very fatal because this can cause blindness and kidney damage which can later on lead to major organ dysfunction and eventually death. Medical studies shows, that for about 60-70% of diabetic mellitus patients will experience this kind of complications. This is because some patients didn’t have self-discipline and didn’t follow the treatment regimen plan. This is a vey sad case if this will happen, that is why prevention is a very important race for the improvement of DM patient’s condition.

The key prevention for DM is the balance of proper diet modification, exercise and the antidiabetic agents. Once you maintain these key aspects then you will achieve the desired level of normal blood glucose level. However, you cannot achieve such kind of positive result if you don’t have self-discipline can help them acquired a good prognosis of the disease and prevent complications to develop. But still, regular monitoring of blood sugar level and regular check-up of you physicians can also help for maintaining a good result.


Having a diabetic mellitus condition needs a great effect in order to have a good result and good prognosis later on. As discussed earlier, once you maintain your blood glucose level at normal range through maintaining a good diet modification, exercise and medications then, you have 80-90-% probability that you achieve a good prognosis. However, if you didn’t maintain your blood glucose levels and didn’t follow the treatment regimen plan then you will achieve a poor prognosis at the end and eventually to death.


A diabetic mellitus condition is a metabolic disorder that needs a proper treatment plan. To come up to a good prognosis you need to change your lifestyle, have a regular exercise, lifetime anti-diabetic agent maintenance, proper glucose monitoring regular check-ups. These criteria can be very helpful for you to avoid complications. Therefore, self-discipline is a key towards acquiring positive result and longer life. Treat this condition as your pet, consider it as part of your life so that you will take good care of your body and be aware of the pros and cons when you cannot control your urge o do something that will affect your health.

A lot of people are not aware that they already have an increased blood sugar because they are too busy eating sweet foods that they like. Many people who have this health problem want to understand what is diabetes and how it can be treated for them to sustain good health. Majority of the people do not know what causes diabetes and how to treat it because they do are not aware that the foods that they are  eating everyday is one reason why they experience health problems. If you have an increased blood sugar, you will certainly have a problem with your body because of too much sugar.

A lot of people love to east sweet foods such as chocolate, ice cream and cake up to a point where they forget that too much sugar is not good for a person’s health. You can still eat these foods as long as you know your limitations. According to some studies, this kind of health problem can also be inherited from other family members. This is the reason why in a certain family, majority of them have increased high sugar content in the body. This is the main reason why you should know what causes diabetes and how to treat it so that you can prevent this kind of health problem. Learn as much as you can about living with diabetes and ensure that you live your life to the fullest, until a diabetes cure can be found!