The rise of diabetes nowadays is increasing especially diabetic Ketoacidosis. This disease mark the world’s most top 10 diseases and one of them is Diabetic Ketoacidosis. DKA is an acute complication, usually occurs among type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, which is characterized by hyperglycaemia, it means high d. sugar levels in the blood., ketonuria which is present of ketone levels in the blood, acidosis and dehydration.
This disease usually occurs among the age group of 25 years and both males and females are affected. In addition to this, the etiology of Diabetic Ketoacidosis, since it is the complication of type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, it all begins in insulin deficiency.
Once insulin is no longer enough for glucose metabolism, the body will force to metabolize fat for energy use. From the metabolism of fat, free fatty acids will then be converted to ketone in the liver. These ketone bodies are organic acids that will also cause metabolic acidosis.
Due to the sudden increase of glucagon, catecholamine’s, growth hormone and cortisol secretion which is cause by insulin deficiency, it will lead to the development of Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Moreover, osmotic diuresis will then occur due to hyperglycemia.
This will then cause a shift in electrolytes in the bodies, which then result in potassium, sodium, phosphate and water losses. That is why; Diabetic Ketoacidosis patients will experience dehydration. Medically speaking, Diabetic Ketoacidosis frequently occurs in undiagnosed or unsuccessful treatment of diabetes.
With these pathophysiologic events of Diabetic Ketoacidosis, clinical manifestation of symptoms will then appear. A person developing Diabetic Ketoacidosis may have one or more symptoms. These will include, in early signs and symptoms which will appear within 24 hours will experience, polydipsia or excessive thirst and polyuria or frequent urination. Additionally, the person will also experiences fatigue, body malaise, drowsiness, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pains and muscle cramps.
Due to dehydration the person will appear anorexic or generally ill in appearance, has dry skin and mouth. Moreover, in later stage, Diabetic Ketoacidosis symptoms will progress. This will include kussmauls respiration or what we called deep respirations as well as fruity or sweet mouth odor. Acetone breath is the primary characteristic of metabolic acidosis.
Aside from that, hypotension or also known as low blood pressure will occur as well as weak pulses. If Diabetic Ketoacidosis will not be treated, it will progress to stupor and coma which will lead later on to a poor prognosis and eventually death.
However, to detect early symptoms of Diabetic Ketoacidosis, the physician will order to test both the blood and the urine. With these, once the blood contains high sugar levels and high ketone level in the urine then it is positive for this disease.
It is very important to seek immediately medical advice to treat the cause. Usually, upon diagnostic evaluation, when the person’s blood sugar level will rise over 300 mg/dl to 1,000 mg/dl it means the person is positive for hyperglycemia. Aside from that, when the ketone level in the urine upon testing is high then, this will confirm the diagnosis of Diabetic Ketoacidosis.
Moreover, when the early manifestations will be observed, it should always put in mind to see a doctor right away. So that treatments and early management will be conducted to prevent further complication. On the other hand, when Diabetic Ketoacidosis is not detected as early as the manifestations appear, complications will develop.
Another factor of the development of complications could be failure of insulin administration. It explains the accumulations of ketone bodies and worsening of acidosis. It is very important that type 1 Diabetes Mellitus persons shouldn’t miss a single dose of insulin injection to prevent these complications to develop.
Upon observing these symptoms of Diabetic Ketoacidosis, usually the doctor advised and order to have intravenous fluid replacement to replace loses of electrolytes due to osmotic diuresis and vomiting. This is very important because when electrolytes are loss the body’s homeostasis will have imbalances.
Proper management and treatment is very important to initiate in order to have good prognosis later on. They are encouraged to verbalize the appearance of these symptoms so that early treatment will be given.
The patients having this kind of disease should be aware of the information and facts behind the development of this disease. Regular check up is advised for them to be aware of such nature of the disease. Also regular and proper insulin administration should also be strictly maintained. Always remember, never missed a single shot of it. To ensure prevention, patient should have proper health teachings and health maintenance.
Medical personnel should educate the persons involve as well as their support persons for them to be aware of having this disease and also good cooperation will develop for the success of the treatments. For prevention is better than cure, health teachings plays an important role of this. Finally, proper management of this disease is observing to prevent poor prognosis in the long run.