Myeloma

INTRODUCTION:

The blood is responsible for the body’s circulation; it contains oxygenated blood that will bring to any parts of the body and organ system, In order to function normally as well as to maintain the body’s homeostasis. Generally, the blood is composed of plasma, it is the fluid portion of the blood that account for 55 % of blood volume which has 92% of blood water, 1% inorganic salts and 7% proteins.

When we say plasma proteins, it includes the fibrinogens, albumins and globulins. While cellular components, includes leukocytes and lymphocytes or the white blood cells, erythrocytes or the red blood cells and platelets. These cellular components come from the bone marrow wherein these cells derived from plurepotent stem cells. Also, cellular components account 45 % of the blood volume.

These are the specific characteristics that the cellular components have, the red blood cells contains hemoglobin’s that is responsible for the oxygen transport. Ideally, the red blood cells will last about 115-130 days before they will be eliminating in the spleen and liver. Second, the white blood cells are the responsible for the defense mechanisms in our immune system. It has blood cell components that act as a guard which protects our body from invading pathogens or bacteria that causes sickness.

And lastly, thrombocytes or platelets are the one who control bleeding through hemostasis. They all have important functions in our body and once any abnormalities will happen, diseases will arise and it will affect the human body. And one of these diseases is multiple myeloma.

DEFINITIONS AND SYMPTOMS

Multiple myeloma is a malignant disorder in the plasma cells, wherein it characterized by proliferations of neoplastic plasma cells that are derived from one B lymphocytes then it will produce a homogenous immunoglobulin’s without any apparent antigenic stimulations.

Because of this, the plasma cells will produce osteoclast-activating factor that will lead and causes severe pain, extensive bone loss and pathologic fractures of the bone. Furthermore, any abnormalities will affect platelet functions, resistance to infections as well as hyper viscosity of the blood.

The abnormalities also will give the body manifestations of symptoms brought by multiple myeloma. One of this is severe bone pain, this is because of lesions in the bones and pathologic fractures that created by stimulation of the osteoclast-activating factors. Other symptoms of mulitple myeloma are electrolyte imbalances and disturbances. This includes hypercalcemia, which causes bone destructions and hyperuricemia, which also lead to renal insufficiency and cell death.

Normally, in the blood there are electrolytes that play important functions in the body’s homeostasis. And multiple myeloma will affect the functions of the electrolytes which will late on develop imbalances and disturbances that affect the major organ system. And also, fatigue and weakness are sometimes manifested; this is related to anemia due to crowding of marrow brought by plasma cells.

CAUSES AND RISK FACTORS

Perhaps you wonder why multiple myeloma develops. When it come from and how does this develops into one’s body? Well, according to medical researches, the etiology or the exact causes of multiple myeloma is unknown. However, there are risk factors that predispose in the developing of this disease.

First, environmental factors found to be one of the contributors of this disease; because frequent exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation will affect the neoplastic plasma cells. And, gentic factors contribute to 45-50% of the probability rates of acquiring this disease. Yes, indeed once multiple myeloma runs in the genes, then it has a big tendency that the next generations will acquire the disease.

TEST AND DIAGNOSTICS

To evaluate the degree of damage caused by multiple myeloma and to confirm the diagnosis of the physicians, medical practitioners and specialist will conduct series of diagnostic tests and procedures so that they can fully evaluate the disease.

First, patients with multiple myeloma will undergo biopsy and bone marrow aspiration. Since the cellular components are manufactured in the bone marrow, it is very helpful that they will get the sample in the bone marrow in order to evaluate any increase numbers and any abnormalities in the forms of the plasma cells.

Second, blood and CBC smear are also being useful in evaluating the disease. Because of this, the hematologic chemistry will reflect anemia, since multiple myeloma affects plasma cells, specifically the red blood cells, the tendency is, hemoglobin that contains iron are affected and it result to anemia in the long run.

Third, skeletal x-rays also play an important factor in reviewing and analyzing the degree of destruction that brought about by multiple myeloma, because, skeletal x-rays will show any osteolytic bone lesions.

And lastly, since multiple myeloma affects renal functions, it is in is important to evaluate the urine and serum analysis in order to detect any presence of abnormal immunoglobulin’s. Moreover, once the diagnosis is confirmed, it is important to undergo treatments immediately in order to increase the survival rates of the patient.

TREATMENTS

Since multiple myeloma is a malignant disorder, generally, the treatment given is through chemotherapy, wherein it uses antineoplastic drugs to promote tumor cell destructions by interfering cellular functions and its reproduction. Usually, the physicians will include together with the chemotherapy, the medications like Cyclophosphamide and oral melphalan as well as corticosteroids medication.

Furthermore, because the disease will cause hyper viscosity and bleeding, in order to control these manifestations plasmapheresis is usually ordered. Also, alpha interferons are given as maintenance therapy for the patients.

On the other hand, once there is already a bone lesions, radiation therapy will be helpful. This therapy will use high energy ionizing beams in order to treat malignancy and benign disorders that will create molecular damage and changes in the biochemistry of the cells that will eventually causes cell death for it disrupts the reproductive cycle of the malignant cells.

Moreover, this disease also causes hypercalcemia, because of electrolyte imbalances and severe bone pain, then biophosphanate will be given to alleviate this symptoms. This medication is potent inhibitors of bone desorption in order to treat too much calcium in the blood that brought about by hypercalcemia, as well as to alleviate bone pain. But, if this treatments are not resolving the problem, then bone marrow transplant is commonly prescribe, however, it is only for the selective severe cases of multiple myeloma.

The candidates for the bone marrow transplant are those patients who are less than 50 years old with no apparent bone lesion, renal dysfunctions and have a good organ functions. And lastly, once there is already an organ dysfunction especially in the kidney, such as hyperuricemia and renal failure, then the treatment will include Allupirinol medications and hemodialysis will be helpful.

The treatments actually focus on the degree of damage that multiple myeloma will bring. This management will truly be helpful to patients having this kind of disease.

ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES

On the other hand, there are non-traditional treatments for any malignancy that will also help and use in treating the disease. However, this alternative treatment does not have exact therapeutic effects that will diminish the problem of multiple myeloma. Instead, this will only help in alleviating the symptoms, that brought by multiple myeloma.

First, herbal therapies are effective in alleviating the problem, such as hyperuricemia, anemia and hypercalcemia. Frequent intake of essiac tea, chaparral and pau d’ Arco are useful.

Second, immune therapies, such as Issels whole body immune therapy and Immuno-Augmentative therapy are useful, since the disease of multiple myeloma affects the immune system. This can also alleviate the symptoms that the disease bring and to prevent further damage.

Third, nutritional therapies play a major role in preventing and controlling the progression of the disease. A healthy, balance diet with macrobiotics and any vitamins as well as minerals will help patient fight any cancer causing diseases and prevent further complications. Did you know that frequent intake of wheatgrass founds out to be useful in treating malignancy disorders? Yes, perhaps it can help alleviating symptoms and prevent further complications among multiple myeloma patients.

And lastly, any adjunctive therapies like oxygen therapies, live cell therapy and chelating contributes to the alleviation of multiple myeloma. Bear in mind, that the condition, again as I’ve said, it can only promote alleviation and supportive treatments as well as a means of preventing the disease to become severe and leading to organ dysfunctions. It is important to have consolations to your physician for they know the treatment plan of multiple myeloma.

COMPLICATIONS

In every disease, once it reaches to the terminal stage complications will arise. The same with multiple myeloma, the complications that usually develop are: pathologic fractures and spinal cord compression, this is due to progressive an d multiple bone lesion.

Another is renal failure and pyelonephritis. The kidneys are being damage due to subsequent hyperuricemia. Since the immune system is very weak, recurrent infections will develop.

Also, there are electrolyte abnormalities, bleeding and thromboembolic complications that are due to hyper viscosity of the blood. Ideally, the patient with multiple myeloma causes has 3-4 years survival after diagnosing the disease. That is why it is important to undergo treatment immediately and always obey to the physician’s advices in order to have high survival years.

And also, try to avoid these complications for it can worsen the disease itself.

PREVENTIONS

Preventions center on the preventing the disease itself to progress and reaching to the complications, since we cannot prevent multiple myeloma to develop. That patient should have health teaching on their disease condition.

They should teach how to manage pain, like relaxation breathing, use of muscle, muscle relaxation, and guided imagery. Another, encourage the patient to have increase intake of water, monitor their intake and output as well as weighing them daily, this will help in assessing the condition of the kidney function.

Also, encourage them to report to their physician immediately any signs of severe pain especially at the back portion, nausea, drowsiness, confusions and polyuremia. Have them check frequently their BUN, creatinine and urine protein test. And most of all, a balance diet, exercise and strict medication compliance will promote good prognosis at the end.

CONCLUSIONS

The disease itself is a malignant condition and treatment will immediately be implemented. Always obey to the physicians order in order to promote good prognosis and outcome for once it aggravates, it can truly affects our lives, our daily activities and everyday functions.

Have a healthy lifestyle and always promote God-centered life.

Kahler’s disease is not actually a common or usual health problem but this can be very threatening to one’s health.

It is essential to know what are multiple myeloma and its characteristics for you to be able to know and be aware of this kind of medical condition.

Cell myeloma is considered to be a cancer of the plasma cells. The white blood cell is usually responsible with the production of the antibodies in the body.

The abnormal cells are deposited in the bone that is why bone lesion occurs. Majority of the cases of cell myeloma also produces paraprotein.

This is an antibody that may cause a problem in the kidney and block the normal production of antibodies, which will lead to an immunodeficiency. A person who is having this health problem usually has a high level of calcium.

Multiple Myeloma is a type of cancer that primarily affects the bone marrow in the bones of the body. This form of cancer can manifest physically through abnormal growth of plasma cells.

The abnormal production of such cells reduces the production of other cells along the affected area like red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets, causing major health risks and problems. Multiple myeloma on the other hand, is when plasma cells simultaneously appear in several areas of the body.

Multiple myeloma happens when there is a high concentration of one kind of antibody in a person’s system forms a malignant tumor. Multiple myeloma has more serious health complication than simple myeloma.